If the layers are horizontal and traceable over considerable distances, the geologist will conclude unless evidence to the relative dating age of layers turns up that there is a very high probability that the layers are right-side-up. Justification for this conclusion is that where obviously deformed rock layers can be observed, the places where complete overturning has been achieved are quite local.
This not surprising since it is harder takes more energy for lengthy portions of layers to be 'turned over' than for local portions. Diagram A illustrates an extensive outcrop of horizontal layers exposed over a great distance. The layers have a high probability of being 'right-side-up'. Diagram B illustrates several separated local outcrops in which horizontal layers are exposed. The layers in the separate outcrops 'line up' with one another.
The geologist assumes dashed lines that if the grass and soil were removed, the layers would be continuous over the whole area.
(Steno's Laws): His four observations on. Relative dating is the science of determining the relative order of past events without provided a means of absolute dating, archaeologists and geologists used relative dating to determine ages of materials. The regular order of the occurrence of fossils in rock layers was discovered around by William Smith. Did rock layer A form before or after rock layer B? Did trilobites live before or Geologists employ a handful of simple principles in relative age dating; two of the.